Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have traditionally had unbiased schools of authorized theory and apply. The Arthashastra, most likely compiled around one hundred AD , and the Manusmriti (c. 100–300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance. Manu’s central philosophy was tolerance and pluralism, and was cited throughout Southeast Asia.
Kelsen believed that though law is separate from morality, it’s endowed with “normativity”, meaning we should obey it. While laws are optimistic “is” statements (e.g. the nice Law for reversing on a highway is €500); law tells us what we “should” do. Thus, each authorized system could be hypothesised to have a basic norm instructing us to obey.
King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash, additionally revered because the god of justice. Hugo Grotius, the founding father of a purely …